Terminology and Why We Need to Reevaluate It

27 Feb

English Dictionaries by John Keogh, via Flickr

Words. We use them all the time. We read them all the time. They fall from our mouths and help to craft the world that we live in. In Kemetic circles, a common phrase is that “words have power” or “words mean things”. Our primary form of creating change in our world is through the use of heka, which can translate into “authoritative utterance”.

Words are very important.

So, too, are titles and labels.

However, despite the growth that both the Kemetic and Pagan/polytheist communities have undergone in recent years, I feel like our terminology hasn’t kept up. A lot of people seem to struggle with what it is they exactly are or what it is they are technically doing. Because Kemeticism is my main focus, I will be restricting my discussion on terminology to the Kemetic circle. However, I do hope that this post can be a jumping point for other circles to have discussions themselves!

In most Kemetic structures, there are not many labels for people to use. You’ve got priests (Hem(et) Netjer) and laity (sometimes called Shemsu). That’s it. If you want to take it a step further, you’ve got people who use magix, people who use heka (Hekau) and people who do protective magix/heka (called Sau). Our entire community is often rendered into less than five terms:

  • Priest
  • Not-priest
  • Magic user of some variety

Surely there is more than that to our community. Let’s break down some of the problems with the terms above:

Priest is a word I see thrown around all over the place. Priesthood means different things in different traditions, and in modern Kemeticism (of a more recon slant), being a priest means being a Hem(et) NTR, or a God Servant/Slave. In antiquity, a priest was there to serve the gods and temple, not the people (for more information, see here), and that is still largely the case even today. This term usually is only applied in the modern sense to people who have an Open Icon in their shrine at home, and for those who have the time and capacity to provide daily state rites to these Open Icons. This term becomes problematic because priest is a rather loaded term in our modern culture, and in antiquity, rituals were not performed by only one person, but a whole group of people. Does the term Hem(et) NTR even serve us in this day and age (literally and figuratively)? Especially when most of us will never be privy to all of the rites and methods used at a state level?

And then what about those of us who do daily rites, but don’t have an Open Icon in our shrines? Do those people count as priests? Or are they laity?

Laity has become a hot button issue in recent months, and for good reason. There isn’t a whole lot written specifically for people who are considered part of a religion’s laity. In antiquity, laity helped to serve the gods by providing the supplies that allowed the priests to do their jobs every day (to learn more see here). However, in the modern context, being a lay person usually means that you are an average person that subscribes to the faith and nothing more. In Christian terms, you would be part of the congregation as opposed to the person at the front of the room. In Kemetic terms, laity is often referred to as being an onion hoer. These were the poor folks who didn’t have the time or capacity to do a whole lot of religious stuff day in and day out. The requirements to be a layperson are pretty much non-existent by most standards, and in the Kemetic faith, the only real requirement as a layperson is to try and live in ma’at.

However, there is a large grey area between these two groups. Most people would probably look at me and assume I am a priest. However, I am not. I can’t remember the last time I did a formalized rite (hint: it’s been months), I don’t do daily service for the gods, and my icons are not Open. So with our basic terms above, I would be a layperson. However, I certainly do perform religious duties and devotional acts every single day.

So what on earth would I be?

And in this simple example, the problem with our definitions becomes ever apparent. We’ve managed to ignore and wipe out large segments of our own community because they technically don’t have a designated place within our paradigm. We don’t acknowledge the full variety of what it can mean to be Kemetic, and when we do that, we make people believe that you can really only be two things: a priest or a layperson, and that is a crying shame.

It is because of this that I feel like we should work on creating new terms that reflect how Kemeticism has shifted over the ages. We are no longer a State run, King-driven type of religion. We no longer have temples with full time staff to run them. We don’t have the capacity to be full time Hem(et) NTR. We don’t have the capacity to meet each other in real life (generally speaking). Things have changed. If the way Kemeticism existed in antiquity fell under a Horian style, we are officially in Setian Kemeticism: we are in diaspora and have lost our resources in the process. I see no point in holding onto a few handful of terms that don’t suit us.

While I don’t entirely have a list of terms to throw out for everyone to consider (I wish I did, I’ve been mulling on this for months), I decided that I could at least show some groups or areas that we need terms for. If we can at least identify that such things exist within our community, we can become more aware of them, and possibly the terminology for those groups will come in time. I’ve tried to keep them organized in some capacity or another, and if I missed a group, please let me know.

Rites, rituals and shrine status:

  • Someone who has an Open Icon and performs daily rites for the gods
  • Someone who performs daily rites for the gods (State rite vs non-State rite?)
  • Someone who performs rites sometimes.
  • Someone who doesn’t perform rites, but performs regular devotional acts to the gods.
  • Someone who only participates in holidays, or performs rites occasionally.
  • Someone who participates heavily in community, but doesn’t necessarily perform a lot of shrine work.

Practice focus:

  • Akhu and ancestors.
  • Death rites or the dead in general (not necessarily related to the dead by blood).
  • Heka or magix.
  • Lesser Unseen spirits such as netjeri.
  • Living in ma’at
  • Gods and deities, NTR

God-phone status and ability to travel between planes:

  • People who are involved in working in the Unseen/Duat.
  • People are work with spirits both here and in the Duat/Unseen
  • People who are able to mediate between the living and the gods or other spirits (for example: a medium).
  • People who can perform healing on non-physical bodies and the like.

Community activities:

  • Researchers and data collectors.
  • Scribes: people who write that data down in a format or location that others can access and use.
  • Story tellers and people who create new ways of seeing the religion
  • People who work on facilitating group activities within the community. Community organizers.
  • Divination services and oracular services for the community

As you can see, there is a lot more to our community and our religion than simply being a priest or not a priest (or a priest that performs magic and a priest that doesn’t perform magic). Our community is wide and diverse, and there are lots of areas where we need people to jump in and help out, and that there are a lot of places where we have absolutely no terms or labels for what these people do.

One of the biggest hurdles to overcoming this problem is trying to ascertain how much of the practices from antiquity we need to keep and how much of these practices need to go. It’s obvious we’ll never have a large, full time set of priests working in temples. It’s possible that we’ll never have large temples ever again as well. And we might not ever have a steady flow of money coming in from temple patrons that allow the priests to do their jobs. The role of priest has to change to accommodate how things have changed in the past few centuries. The role of the layperson has also shifted, and our structure in the modern community needs to reflect this.

To get the ball rolling, I’d love to hear back from the community (regardless of your path) as to what you feel a modern priest is, and what it should be. What is the role of the priest? Do they serve only the gods, or do they serve the community and laypeople as well? What is the role of the lay person? Should they support the priesthood? How would we organize such things? What types of terms do we use to illustrate the grey area that exists between priest and lay person?

Additionally, how would you label some of the roles listed above? Do you feel that we need to create new terminology for our modern religious practices?

While I know that this post is not filled with solutions and lists of terms, I hope that this helps to get the ball rolling!

Relevant Links:


Posted by on February 27, 2014 in Kemeticism, Rambles


Tags: , , , , , , ,

36 responses to “Terminology and Why We Need to Reevaluate It

  1. henadology

    February 27, 2014 at 11:57 am

    We are no longer a State run, King-driven type of religion … If the way Kemeticism existed in antiquity fell under a Horian style, we are officially in Setian Kemeticism: we are in diaspora and have lost our resources in the process.

    This is a very interesting concept. I have wondered if a theological critique of the “Horian style” in Egyptian society had not already begun in antiquity, at least by the time of the 7th c. BCE papyrus Brooklyn 47.218.84 treated by Dimitri Meeks, where we read at some length of the sufferings of Horit. In a weird way, I feel that the Horit cycle marks a “post-Horian” phase in the development of Egyptian theology.

    • von186

      February 27, 2014 at 12:48 pm

      I’m actually really interested in the concept of Horian vs. Non-Horian/Setian Kemeticism, because I think it could help to show how Kemeticism has shifted and changed, and perhaps give us an idea on how we need to change and grow moving forward.
      I haven’t read this particular papyrus you’re referring to. Would you be willing to give me a basic idea of what is written in it? Or do you know of a location where I can read up on is myself?

      • henadology

        February 27, 2014 at 1:01 pm

        I wrote up the material about Horit in my entry on her:

      • von186

        February 28, 2014 at 4:06 pm

        I looked through it, and I was wondering if there is something in particular about this story/myth/deity that indicates to you the ending of a Horian era as it were? I had discussed the concept with a few others last night, and we were debating whether a Horian era would end with the last native pharaoh or when Egypt stopped being its own country, as it were. Someone else had suggested that leaving the Horian era would mark a lack of concern about royal cults, while someone else felt that it would be marked by a lack of state-run cult functions. Thoughts?

      • henadology

        February 28, 2014 at 7:06 pm

        My idea would be that the “Horian era” as it were ends when a further plane of theological structure has emerged, rather than as a function of events on the ground. The Horus-structure is still there, but its context has changed. Horit embodies a further “generation” in this sense. (Imagine if Zeus had not prevented Thetis from giving birth to a God, rather than a hero, for instance.) Also, there is a sense in which, if Horus is also the king, then Horit is simply the nation herself, with all of its suffering and resilience.

  2. shezep

    February 27, 2014 at 12:48 pm

    I wholeheartedly agree that there are numerous roles that can and should be filled within Kemetisicm, and that the people who fill these roles deserve some kind of positive recognition. A pyramid with a wide base is far more stable than a straight and narrow obelisk.

    I’ve sort of tagged myself as a Kemetic mystic. Union with the divine and trying to puzzle out mysteries is a big part of what I do. It doesn’t seem like a very practical passtime, but now and then I can see patterns and comment on them.

    • von186

      February 27, 2014 at 12:58 pm

      I don’t entirely know what a mystic does. I’d certainly like to see further thoughts from you about what you think being a mystic in a Kemetic sense means :>
      I was told yesterday that I sound like a Sem priest (in training, probably? idk), though I currently ID as the “chicken feet lady” because I srsly don’t know what to call myself.
      It seems that there are lots of roles that existed in antiquity that perhaps we don’t know about in the modern era. We definitely need to get more resources on stuff like that so that we can start to develop more material and information about those roles.

      • shezep

        February 27, 2014 at 2:23 pm

        Here’s the wiki:

        It appears that there are a lot of people who don’t quite know what a mystic does. The definition seems to jump all over the place, but it also jumps around in areas that make sense to me. It does involve altered states to achieve some sort of divinely inspired experience. In some “union with God/s” is a big part of it, while other definitions skip that part and are satisfied with “presence” rather than “union.” In Kemeticism, the spells often do place the speaker in the role of a god. I’m not sure if that can be counted as the same thing or not. It might depend on the person doing it and the spirit in which it is done. I definitely do get a blendy experience going on in my practice.

        Transformation is also listed as a large factor. A lot of our journeywork stuff is aimed at transformation of one kind or another, of ourselves, or others, or while thinking along community lines.

        From the wiki: “And James R. Horne notes:

        [M]ystical illumination is interpreted as a central visionary experience in a psychological and behavioural process that results in the resolution of a personal or religious problem. This factual, minimal interpretation depicts mysticism as an extreme and intense form of the insight seeking process that goes in activities such as solving theoretical problems or developing new inventions.”

        This seems to go along with what I said earlier about puzzling out mysteries. I might even describe it as looking for answers to the really big questions. Mysticism seems to crop up in a lot of different religious and spiritual systems. I’ve compared it before to the spiritual R&D department. Historical researchers reconstruct the bones. Mystics revive the breath. Breath is invisible, but no less important.

      • von186

        February 28, 2014 at 4:07 pm

        That makes sense. It also confirms that mysticism is probably not what I do, as my aim isn’t about union with the divine, and transformation is only useful inasmuch as it makes me more capable at my job. However, it is certainly a bracket to consider when coming up with possible terminology in our community.

  3. Raawy

    February 27, 2014 at 5:58 pm

    Honestly, I wish there were more terms out there for modern Kemeticism. There are a multitude of terms in antiquity that mean a variety of things, and I think that if someone or someones got together on this, there might be the ability to add more terms. I don’t know where/what I would fit at, so I just call myself a “Kemetic practitioner” or “a Shemsu of/within the Kemetic Orthodoxy”. It’s the only terminology I feel 100% safe using. /:

    I love that you brought this up though, I really hope something comes of it, because there are so many people out there (myself included) who would feel better if they had a properly applied term for what they are/do.

    • von186

      February 28, 2014 at 4:08 pm

      I definitely wish there was a more comprehensive list of different terms, jobs and roles that were in antiquity so that we could use some of them in the modern era. Would make it a lot easier than starting from scratch :\

      • Raawy

        March 1, 2014 at 7:04 am

        The big challenge in using ancient terms is in making sure we are using them correctly and not thinking a means b but knowing that a means a.

  4. Raawy

    February 27, 2014 at 5:58 pm

    Reblogged this on Sand and Snow and commented:
    I’d really love to see this happen, so I’m sharing it. 🙂

  5. briarrose44

    February 27, 2014 at 6:42 pm

    I’m not strictly laity, but not a priestess either. I’m in a relationship with a god but I don’t call myself a godspouse, godslave isn’t right either, and calling myself a hemet-Netjer feels wrong (maybe because it sounds like a fancy priestly title?). I refuse to do astral work of any kind, but still have vivid dreams involving the gods (and I’m fine with this). I’ve been informed that my writing (my blogs, poetry, and stories) are something the gods are interested in.

    I have no idea what to call myself, and it drives me nuts some days.

    • von186

      February 28, 2014 at 4:17 pm

      I don’t feel like HMT-NTR suits what you do, either. I only know of, like, 4 people that HM-T NTR actually suits. So I definitely think we need some other definitions or labels. Currently, I’m liking the sounds of both ritualist and cultist for alternatives. I’m definitely gonna see what else I can find.

  6. Aubs Tea

    February 27, 2014 at 7:27 pm

    If I’m taking the antiquity out of the role of a priest, then I’m going to say that their [current] role would be to attend the community. Priests of old tended to the stewardship of the gods, but nowadays the gods are only as important as we allow them to be and, by my own definition, they shouldn’t be as impt as they were. So I think that taking care of the wider community, as boat paddlers, story tellers, scribes, etc, would be the way I’d describe their roles.

    To me, the role of the laity is up to each who considers themselves laity. To me, it’s living in ma’at. It’s boat paddling. It’s fostering healthy community.It’s helping others, either by providing an ear, research sources, support, commiseration, etc. I also think if they support the priesthood, and I think they should, it’s in the way that they would support other laity: providing an ear, boat paddling when a ‘priest’ can’t, etc.

    I don’t know if much organization is needed. Not like with KO or Reidyland. Not like modern churches because, many are too set on the solitary path. I kind of see it like our group. Some provide links and info, some commiserate, some give dialoque, some share interesting stories, sm but above all, everyone is conscientious and supportive enough. It’s not a set organization but a group of individuals who well care.

    I have to think further about terms before I respond.

    • khenneferitw

      February 28, 2014 at 12:43 pm

      In what way would you have modern priests attend to the community? What would mark the ways they care for the community as different than the ways a layperson tends to the community?

      • Aubs Tea

        February 28, 2014 at 8:47 pm

        I think their specialization, as Devo stated, would be a good start. As many gods as there are in Kemeticism, specialists/well-read people are a must in the “priest” field.

        But I also think they would be more likely to take on the back-breaking community work that has been going on. Like, Devo’s boat paddling. It’s not a specialized skill and many others do it as well. But out of all of us, she does the hard shit, the thankless bits, that can and do get swept under the rug.

        That, to me, is part if what a priest would do.

        The lay people would be the support foundation – not financially but maybe like emotionally?

    • von186

      February 28, 2014 at 4:19 pm

      I lean a bit towards how Shinto priests work (at least, here in the US). You are knowledgable about your deity, about your religion. But you also are a point of contact for the community. However, I also know of priestly types who are not well suited for community work (for a variety of reasons), and i Don’t think that people should be forced to do things that they aren’t necessarily good at. So… I think there has to be a bit of a separation?
      But I think one requirement of being a priest or a group leader in any capacity is knowledge of the NTR you work with, and knowledge of Kemeticism.
      I also don’t think we need the level of KO or Reidy. i think that its fine for separate temples to have that level of organization, but I certainly don’t ever expect Kemetics as a whole to be united in that sort of fashion. Hopefully it’s not looking like that is what I’m implying, cuz its not XDD

      • Aubs Tea

        February 28, 2014 at 8:48 pm

        I like how that works, Shinto priests. I think that translates well for Kemetics.

        Nah. I didn’t think you wanted a high level of organization. XD

      • von186

        March 2, 2014 at 11:46 am

        It does, only problem is that Shinto priests are sustained by their clergy/shrine members. And we are lacking that in a large way in Kemeticism.
        I think that the reason a lot of pagan groups don’t get very far is that there is no support structure for te people at the top.

      • Aubs Tea

        March 2, 2014 at 5:08 pm

        I honestly think it’s a catch-22. We want a sort of group dynamic, which will naturally need to include priests and the like. However, everyone wants the “elite status” of being a priest and no one wants to create the foundation/is able to create a foundation that would appeal to many solitaries’ solitary nature.

      • von186

        March 2, 2014 at 5:10 pm

        That would lead me to question why people want the priest status, and where that idea came from. I think one of hte best ways to combat that is to redefine our community and more or less show that there are other things that are just as good, just as fun, and just as fulfilling as priest status. Again, I think part of that comes back to “there is more than priests and not priests to all of this”

  7. Sashataakheru

    February 27, 2014 at 8:06 pm

    Hem-netjer and scribe are the ways I describe my role at the moment. Yes, I do daily devotions, but they’re not State rites, nor do I tend Open statues. The scribal parts of my work are more important than ritual, and it took me a long time to accept that I didn’t need to be a hardcore ritualist to be Kemetic. (I barely have the mental energy for long rituals eight times a year, let alone more frequently than that. I burnt myself out last time I tried that.)

    Sobek and I argued for a long time about what to call our relationship before we settled on hem-netjer, though. For me, I take it as it is, that I am a servant of a god, and nothing more or less than that. I know others will relate to the term differently than I will, and that’s fine. I think there does need to be more ‘titles’/labels for the different things we do, but I also think there needs to be the scope to allow each of us to relate to them in our own way. Diversity is great. I’m not sure what labels we ought to use for those, nor if there’s any chance we could organise ourselves well enough to have a standard system, but having different models out there, or different ways to be Kemetic, is not a bad idea.

    • von186

      February 28, 2014 at 4:22 pm

      *nod* I get that. Scribal work (I guess that’s what I do?) and community work are far more important than ritual work atm. The gods keep telling me that I don’t need a title, and that what I call myself is up to me, but it still would be helpful for my own brain to have a bit of a box to throw some of what I do into. Plus, it makes for easier communication.
      I do agree that there has to be at least some grey area for labels and titles. Kinda like gender stuff- if you ID as it, I am in no position to tell you no. But I think having some amount of labeling would be useful, esp for new comers, to show that we do have more diversity in our community.
      *rolls around*

      • Sashataakheru

        February 28, 2014 at 8:25 pm

        Oh, yeah, totally. Knowing how to talk about what you do, and knowing what words you use to label/title yourself, can be really handy, particularly if you’re trying to explain what you do to others. For newcomers, too, it’s useful to have that diversity, so they don’t feel like they have to do things only one way. I think Kemeticism suffers from that sometimes, particularly when Kemetic Orthodoxy is the one Big Name Temple out there. it’s always going to have this sway on how people think Kemetic religion is practiced, and that’s not necessarily a bad thing, but it’s not the only way to do things. That’s a different discussion, though, from finding appropriate titles to use. I also think the need for titles is more needed for solitaries anyway, since without an established tradition with its own hierarchy, we have to kind of define ourselves and what we do.

        I guess the place to begin would be to go back to the titles and roles we know about from antiquity, and discard those that don’t seem helpful or practical (ones too specific to temple practices, perhaps), and move from there to define what we now do, and what’s possible within our modern practices. Maybe we’d end up with a mix of English and Egyptian titles, but the way Kemetic religion is now isn’t how it was back then, and maybe we need new titles for those roles that exist outside of a State-based temple cult. That’s where I’d start, anyway. Where it would go from there, IDK. I’m also leery of ending up with a list that would end up being taken more strictly than necessary, where it lacks the grey shades we need. But defining things does tend to do that, so.

  8. hocuspocus13

    February 28, 2014 at 8:49 am

    Reblogged this on hocuspocus13.

  9. khenneferitw

    February 28, 2014 at 12:42 pm

    You know, reading this post actually made me do a one eighty on everything.

    I don’t know what the point is of labels for lay people! I know the point with priests and mystics is to explain what they’re doing and that is important because there are so many disagreements on what priests are. But do we really need fancy stickers for the various jobs performed by the laity?

    I think more than anything, there needs to be acceptance in the broader community that lay is okay. We in the laity do a lot of things that contribute to the community – many of us research, share information, and write about our practices; many people create original devotional works of art; and many of us are just around and trying to foster a sense of community among Kemetics. That’s a hell of a lot more important that spending ninety minutes a day in front of a shrine feeding, clothing, and entertaining a god.

    I’ve ended up wondering why a Hem-Netjer priesthood continues to matter, honestly. Is it because of the traditions of the past? Is it because that’s what the Netjeru want? I certainly respect people who put hundreds of hours and hundreds of dollars into honoring the Netjeru in such a manner… But I really feel like (especially financially) there are other things that they could be doing with those resources. Maybe it’s because of my Christian upbringing, but I’ve always felt that priests owe more to the community than they do to the gods. In KO, those who operate State shrines are at least required to do other things for the community, though some persons are more present than others in that regard.

    • von186

      February 28, 2014 at 4:27 pm

      “But do we really need fancy stickers for the various jobs performed by the laity?”
      Yes XD Because I am a layperson, and I want something that more accurately can convey what I do, without needing a whole paragraph to describe it XDDD
      I do agree that we need to show that lay is okay, but more importantly than that, I think we need to re-define what laity is. Almost everyone you’ve ever met is a layperson, but because were so hung up on what a layperson is “supposed” to be, people think that people like me (and Aubs, and Helms, etc) are priests when we’re not. I think, above all, we need to redefine what it means to be these things.
      I believe that a lot of people are hung up on HM-T NTR because that’s all we know exists. You’re either a priest, or a nobody. And in a lot of non-Kemetic circles, if gods talk to you in any capacity, you’re instantly labeled as a priest. Because we’re not taken the time to really show how there is a lot of grey in this, I think that people instantly boil it into black and white, and it creates confusion.
      I believe that there is a place for people of the HM-T NTR role. There are people who are not adept at running community stuff. There are people who personally get fulfillment out of serving the gods daily (its not always about the gods, let’s not forget 😛 ) and there are people who are told to do the more in-depth rituals by the gods, and its certainly not my place to judge them.
      However, I am a firm believer in education changing things- and I think we need ore education and resources for newcomers and existing “members” so that it can become common knowledge that there is more than priest and not priest. That, and that woo and priest don’t always go hand in hand :>

  10. shefyt

    March 2, 2014 at 10:36 am

    A couple of extra categories for you (though maybe you consider them to fall under one of the above?):

    Crafters/artists/people who make things (as distinguished from people who make objects as part of a heka project; this would be more artistic/devotional)

    Singers/songwriters, dancers, musicians

    Perhaps “shrine-keeper” might be a title for people who aren’t full-on priests, but do maintain some form of shrine and engage the Gods on at least a semi-regular basis?

    • von186

      March 2, 2014 at 11:45 am

      I consider most of those to fall under the “I do devotional acts that aren’t necessarily ritual work”. :> But I do agree that having those caveats mentioned is important.
      I like the idea of shrine-keeper, too. Hmmmmmm. Lots to think about. :3

  11. owanderer

    March 3, 2014 at 12:57 pm

    Hey Devo, it’s inkstainedqueer from tumblr. My spirit allies recently asked me to ponder & write about what it means to be a priest, which I thought maybe I could share with folk here. I really enjoy reading everyone’s thoughts on expanding terms and labels for community members. Having more labels is inclusive and important.

    • von186

      March 3, 2014 at 4:49 pm

      I think its a good starting point, but certainly would have to be tradition specific. A lot of those tasks, for Kemetics, don’t fall under the traditional domain of a priest (which, again, it’s like “well do we need to change the definition of what a Kemetic priest is?”). I also think that its nearly impossible for a single person to do all of those things on the list you provided- so I’m not sure if it was just a bunch of ideas of a variety of ways that people can perform in a priestly function, or if all of this needs to be bundled in one person XDDD

  12. Eltine

    March 14, 2014 at 1:21 pm

    I use necklaces of Gods, live in Ma’at and practice energy work from time to time. Plus, I worship Djehuty. Who does it make me into?


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: